「認同:理論與研究方法」專題研究
(Identity: Theory and Method)

許維德

九十六學年第一學期
課程名稱:「認同:理論與研究方法」專題研究
開課系所:國立交通大學社會與文化研究所
學分數:3
時間:5BCD
授課教師:許維德
Tel: 02-2832-9595(H);0910-376-440(Cellular)
Email: weidershu@gmail.com
一、課程介紹:
「認同」可能是近十年來社會及人文科學相關學科中最熱門的研究議題之一,在台灣學界固然如此,在歐美學界也彰顯著這樣的趨勢(或者應當說,在某種程度上台灣的學界複製了主流學界的研究趨勢?)。這個現象一方面和客觀世界的種種變化息息相關(例如全球化的趨勢、90年代新一波民族主義的崛起、新傳播科技的興起等),另一方面也和學界內部的變化(例如跨學科之文化研究的出現、後現代後殖民等論述的成為當紅研究議題等)有關。不管真正的原因是什麼,在某種程度上認同研究似乎已經成了社會及人文學者無可逃避的研究議題,不論你的專業領域是什麼,對相關文獻的掌握已經成為一個相關學者基本的研究功課之一。

這門課基本上是從社會科學(相對於人文科學)的傳統來探討和認同相關的研究,整個課程的設計將環繞在「如何從事認同的經驗研究」這樣的問題意識下。我們將這門課分成三大部份,第一部分是和認同相關之基本概念的釐清,我們特別將對「認同」這個詞彙做詳盡的語意學分析。第二部分則是和認同相關之理論取向的回顧。第三部分的主要關懷在於和認同研究相關的方法論上,我們將對這個領域所可能採取的一些研究方法,進行初步的討論。

在第一部分,我們將先對認同這個詞彙進行一次詳盡的語意學分析,我們將考察這個詞彙在日常生活中的指涉進行考察,也將對這個詞彙在學術社群的應用做一個系譜學的分析,最後,我們將簡單討論這個概念做為一個學術語彙的可能貢獻與侷限。

在第二部分,我們將首先針對「傳統」的認同理論進行討論,我們將逐一檢視Erikson以降之心理學傳統的認同研究、美國社會學界最早形成之本土學派(相對於歐洲進口的理論和觀念) --- 符號互動論(symbolic interactionism) --- 的認同觀念、以及以歐陸社會心理學為基礎發展出來的「社會認同理論(social identity theory)」。接下來我們將把焦點擺在晚近受到文化研究影響的「批判性」認同理論上,依序探索「建構論(constructionism)」以及「解構論(deconstructionism)」的認同理論。

第三部分是對認同研究之方法論的討論。事實上,由於和認同相關之概念在操作上的困難,也由於認同研究的跨學科性質,以及解構主義思潮的滲透,我們看到了認同研究在方法論上所面臨的嚴重挑戰。我們會覺得,在目前的認同研究中,對方法論及研究方法的討論是十分迫切、甚至是最重要的議題。因此,我們將在這一部分依序討論不同之研究方法對認同研究的可能貢獻。這些方法包括社會調查法(survey)、Q方法(Q methodology)、民族誌(ethnography)、生命史(life history)和傳記(biography)研究法、屬於文學傳統的文本分析、不屬於文學傳統的文本分析(包括論述分析和敘事分析)、以及以圖像、音樂、夢境和其他非傳統性素材當作分析對象的研究法。做為一個充滿活力與可能性的新研究議題,我們期望認同研究也能在研究方法上帶給我們一些新的視野與可能。

雖然這種以「認同」之相關理論和研究方法做為主軸的課程設計有其好處,但卻不免會忽略不同「類別」之認同之間(比如說國族認同和性別認同)存在的可能差異。因此,另外一種可能的課程安排方式是以認同之「類型」做為分類的主軸。為了避免目前這種課程設計上的可能缺失,我另外整理了一份以「類型」為準的認同研究相關文獻之參考書目,希望這份書目對同學期末報告(詳見後述)的撰寫有所幫助。(請見本課程大綱的附錄)


週次 課程主題
第一週課程簡介及導論
第一部分:基本觀念的釐清
第二週 認同的語意學分析
第三週 為什麼要研究「認同」? 認同是一個有用的學術分析概念嗎?
第二部分:相關理論的回顧
第四週 「傳統」理論取向(一) --- Erikson以降心理學傳統的認同研究
第五週 「傳統」理論取向(二) --- 符號互動論 (symbolic interactionism)/認同理論 (identity theory)
第六週 「傳統」理論取向(三) --- 社會認同理論 (social identity theory)
第七週 「批判」理論取向(一) --- 建構主義 (constructionism)式的認同理論
第八週 「批判」理論取向(二) --- 「解構主義 (deconstructionism)」式的認同理論
第九週*期中考週;不用考試,但同學必須到場繳交研究計畫/研究論文期中報告,並當場與老師討論。
第三部分:「認同」之研究方法探究
第十週 研究方法總論
第十一週 研究方法(一) --- 社會調查
第十二週 研究方法(二) --- Q方法
第十三週 研究方法(三) --- 民族誌
第十四週 研究方法(四) --- 生命史、傳記
第十五週 研究方法(五) --- 文本分析:文學文本
第十六週 研究方法(六) --- 文本分析:非文學文本(論述分析、敘事方析)
第十七週 研究方法(七) --- 圖像、音樂、夢境及其他非傳統性研究素材
第十八週 學生報告

七、詳細進度大綱及閱讀材料

第一週:課程簡介及導論

第一部分:基本觀念的釐清

第二週:到底什麼是「認同」? 認同的語意學分析

基本閱讀教材:
Fearon, Jarnes D. 1999. "What is Identity? (As We Now Use the Word)." In Conference on the Measurement of Identity in the Social Sciences [online]. Cambridge, Mass.: Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 3 November 1999 [cited 24 December 2002]. Available from World Wide Web: .
Gleason, Philip. 1983. Identifying Identity: A Semantic History. Journal of American History 6: 910-931.
建議閱讀教材:
Laitin, David D. 1998. Identity in Formation: The Russian-Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. (Ch. 1: A Theory of Political Identities, 3-35).
江宜樺,1998,《自由主義、民族主義與國家認同》。台北:揚智。(第一章:政治哲學與國家認同問題,頁1-24)
第三週:為什麼要研究「認同」? 認同是一個有用的學術分析概念嗎?

基本閱讀教材:
Brubaker, Rogers, and Frederick Cooper. 2000. Beyond "Identity". Theory and Society 29, no. 1: 1-47.
Handler, Richard. 1994. Is "Identity" a Useful Cross-Cultural Concept? In Commemorations: The Politics of National Identity, edited by John R. Gillis, 27-40. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
建議閱讀教材:
Gecas, Viktor, and Peter J. Burke. 1995. Self and Identity. In Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology, edited by Karen S. Cook, Gary Alan Fine, and James S. House, 41-67. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
Howard, Judith A. 2000. Social Psychology of Identities. Annual Review of Sociology 26: 367-93.
第二部分:相關理論的回顧

第四週:「傳統」理論取向(一) --- Erikson以降心理學傳統的認同研究

基本閱讀教材:
Erikson, Erik H. 1980(1959). Identity and the Life Cycle. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. (Ch. 1: Ego Development and Historical Change, 17-50; Ch. 3: The Problem of Ego Identity, 108-175).
Phinney, Jean S., and Doreen A. Rosenthal. 1992. Ethnic Identity in Adolescence: Process, Context, and Outcome. In Adolescent Identity Formation, edited by Gerald R. Adams, Thomas P. Gulotta, and Raymond Montemayor, 145-72. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.
建議閱讀教材:
Hauser, Stuart T., and Eydie Kasendorf. 1983. Black and White Identity Formation. 2nd ed. Malabar, Fla.: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company.
Marcia, James E. 1993a. The Ego Identity Status Approach to Ego Identity. In Ego Identity: A Handbook for Psychological Research, by James E. Marcia, Allan S. Waterman, David R. Matteson, Sally L. Archer, and Jacob L. Orlofsky, 3-21. New York: Springer-Verlag.
______. 1993b. The Status of the Statuses: Research Review. In Ego Identity: A Handbook for Psychological Research, by James E. Marcia, Allan S. Waterman, David R. Matteson, Sally L. Archer, and Jacob L. Orlofsky, 22-41. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Waterman, Alan S., and Sally L. Archer. 1990. A Life-span Perspective on Identity Formation: Developments in Form, Function, and Process. In Life-span Development and Behavior, edited by Paul B. Baltes, David L. Featherman, and Richard M. Lerner, 29-57. Vol. 10. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
余安邦、張玉潔、胡志偉,1993,從認知的觀點探討當前台灣大學生之自我概念的屬性與內涵,見黃應貴主編,人觀、意義與社會,頁261-304。台北:中央研究院民族學研究所。
第五週:「傳統」理論取向(二) --- 符號互動論 (symbolic interactionism)/認同理論 (identity theory)

基本閱讀教材:
Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identities. Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (Ch. 1: Stigma and Social Identity, 1-40).
Stryker, Sheldon. 2000. Identity Theory. In Encyclopedia of Sociology, 2d ed., edited by Edgar F. Borgatta, and Rhonda J. V. Montgomery, 1253-58. Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan Reference USA.
建議閱讀教材:
Cooley, Charles Horton. 1998(1902). The Looking-glass Self. In Social Theory: The Multicultural and Classic Readings, edited by Charles C. Lemert, and Charles Lemet, 204-5. Westview Press.
Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identities. Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (Other chapters of the book).
McCall, George J., and Jerry Laird Simmons. 1978. Identities and Interactions: An Examination of Human Associations in Everyday Life. New York: The Free Press. (Ch. 1: The Problem and the Approach, 1-13; Ch. 4: The Role-identity Model, 61-100; Ch. 8: The Interactive Career of the Individual, 200-225; Ch. 9: The Logistics of Identity, 226-251; Epilogue, 252-273).
Mead, George Herbert. 1934. Mind, Self, and Society: From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist. edited by Charles W. Morris. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. (Part III: The Self, 135-226).
Schrauger, J. Sidney, and Thomas J. Schoeneman. 1999. Symbolic Interactionist View of Self-concept: Through the Looking Glass Darkly. In The Self in Social Psychology, edited by Roy F. Baumeister, 25-42. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Edwards Brother.
Stryker, Sheldon. 1980. Symbolic Interactionism: A Social Structural Version. Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin-Cummings (Ch. 3: Contemporary symbolic interactionism: A statement, 51-85).
Weigert, Andrew J. 1983. Identity: Its Emergence within Sociological Psychology. Symbolic Interaction 6: 183-206.
第六週:「傳統」理論取向(三) --- 社會認同理論 (social identity theory)

基本閱讀教材:
Andrews, Molly. 1991. Lifetimes of Commitment: Aging, Politics, Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Ch. 2: The Potential of Social Identity Theory, 22-41).
Hogg, Michael A., Deborah Terry, and Katherine White. 1995. A Tale of Two Theories: A Critical Comparison of Identity Theory with Social Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly 58: 255-69.
Stets, Jan E., and Peter J. Burke. 2000. Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly 63: 224-37.
建議閱讀教材:
Brewer, Marilynn B. 2001. The Many Faces of Social Identity: Implications for Political Psychology. Political Psychology 22: 115-25.
Kelly, Caroline, and Sara Breinlinger. 1996. The Social Psychology of Collective Action: Identity, Injustice and Gender. London: Taylor and Francis. (Ch. 1: Introduction, 1-18; Ch. 2: Social Psychological Approaches to Collective Action, 19-54).
Louw-Potgieter, Joha. 1988. Afrikaner Dissidents: A Social Psychological Study of Identity and Dissent. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Tajfel, Henri, and John C. Turner. 1979. An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict. In The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations, edited by William G. Austin, and Stephen Worchel, 33-47. Montrey, Calif.: Brooks/Cole.
Turner, John C. 1999. Some Current Issues in Research on Social Identity and Self-categorization Theory. In Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content , edited by Naomi Ellemers, Russell Spears, and Bertjan Doosje, 6-34. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
第七週:「批判」理論取向(一) --- 建構主義 (constructionism)式的認同理論

基本閱讀教材:
Cerulo, Karen A. 1997. Identity Construction: New Issues, New Directions. Annual Review of Sociology 23: 385-409.
Cornell, Stephen, and Douglas Hartmann. 1998. Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Pine Forge Press. (Ch. 3: Fixed or Fluid? Alternative Views of Ethnicity and Race, 39-71; Ch. 4: A Constructionist Approach, 72-101).
Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. 2000. Violence and the Social Construction of Ethnic Identity. International Organization 54, no. 4: 845-77.
建議閱讀教材:
Berger, Peter, and Thomas Luckmann. 1966. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books.
Crotty, Michael. 1998. The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. (Ch. 3: Constructionism: The Making of Meaning, 42-65).
Levine, George. 1992. Introduction: Constructivism and the Re-emergent Self. In Constructions of the Self, edited by George Levine, 1-13. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
第八週:「批判」理論取向(二) --- 「解構主義 (deconstructionism)」式的認同理論

基本閱讀教材:
Clifford, James. 1994. Diaspora. Cultural Anthropology 9: 302-38.
Hall, Stuart. 1994. Cultural Identity and Diaspora. In Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader, edited by Patrick Williams, and Laura Chrisman, 392-403. New York: Columbia University Press.
Zaretsky, Eli. 1994. Identity Theory, Identity Politics: Psychoanalysis, Marxism, Post-Structuralism. In Social Theory and the Politics of Identity, edited by Craig Calhoun, 198-215. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers.
建議閱讀教材:
Chatterjee, Partha. 1993. The Nation and Its Fragments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Derrida, Jacques. 1997. Of Grammatology. translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Ch. 1: The End of the Book and the Beginning of Writing, 6-26).
Erickson, Rebecca J. 1995. The Importance of Authenticity for Self and Society. Symbolic Interaction 18: 121-44.
第九週:期中考週

不用考試,但同學必須到場繳交研究計畫/研究論文期中報告,並當場與老師討論。

第三部分:「認同」之研究方法探究

第十週:研究方法總論

基本閱讀教材:
Abdelal, Rawi, Herrera, Yoshiko M., Johnston, Alastair Iain, and McDermott, Rose. 2005. Identity as a Variable. In Identity Project [online]. Cambridge, Mass. : Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, [cited 31 August 2005]. Available from World Wide Web: .
石之瑜、姚源明,2004,社會科學研究認同的幾個途徑。東亞研究 35,no. 1:1-36。
第十一週:研究方法(一) --- 社會調查

基本閱讀教材:
李美枝,2003,台灣地區族群與國族認同的顯性與隱性意識。本土心理學研究,no. 20:39-71。
吳乃德,2005,麵包與愛情:初探台灣民眾民族認同的變動。台灣政治學刊 9,no. 2:5-39。
Brady, Henry E., and Cynthia S. Kaplan. 2000. Categorically Wrong? Nominal versus Graded Measures of Ethnic Identity. Paper presented at the VI World Congress for Central and East European Studies, 29 July - 3 August, Tampere, Finland.
建議閱讀教材:
吳乃德,1996,自由主義和族群認同:搜尋台灣民族主義的意識型態基礎。台灣政治學刊 1:5-39。
Burke, Peter J., and Judy C. Tully. 1977. The Measurement of Role Identity. Social Forces 55, no. 4: 881-97.
Sellers, Robert M. et al. 1998. Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity: A Reconceptualization of African American Racial Identity. Personality and Social Psychology Review 2, no. 1: 18-39.
Nisbett, Richard, and Dan Cohen. 1996. Culture of Honor: The Psychology of Violence in the South. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
第十二週:研究方法(二) --- Q方法

基本閱讀教材:
王家英、孫同文,1996,國族認同的解體與重構。政治科學論叢,no. 7:321-53。
Davis, Thomas C. 1999. Revisiting Group Attachment: Ethnic and National Identity. Political Psychology 20, no. 1: 25-47.
建議閱讀教材:
Davis, Thomas C. 1997. The Subjectivity of National Identity: A Q-methodological Study of Individual Attachment to the Basque Nation. Ph.D. diss., Kent State University.
Hauser, Stuart T., and Eydie Kasendorf. 1983. Black and White Identity Formation. 2nd ed. Malabar, Fla.: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company.
Wong, Ka-ying Timothy, and Tung-wen Milan Sun. 1998. Dissolution and Reconstruction of National Identity: The Experience of Subjectivity in Taiwan. Nations and Nationalism 4, no. 2: 247-72.
第十三週:研究方法(三) --- 民族誌

基本閱讀教材:
胡台麗,1990,芋仔與番薯:台灣「榮民」的族群關係與認同。中央研究院民族學研究所集刊 69:107-32。
Collins, Dana. 2005. Identity, Mobility, and Urban Place-Making: Exploring Gay Life in Manila. Gender & Society 19, no. 2: 180-198.
Snow, David A., and Leon Anderson. 1987. Identity Work among the Homeless: The Verbal Construction and Avowal of Personal Identities. American Journal of Sociology 92, no. 6: 1336-71.
建議閱讀教材:
林文剛,1998,卡拉OK在身份認同構成中的模糊特性。新聞學研究,no. 56:65-83。
王鵬惠,2002,漢人的異己想像與再現:明清時期滇黔類民族誌書寫的分析。國立臺灣大學考古人類學刊,no. 58:92-118。
趙惠敏,2005,食物知識、性別實踐與女性認同:台灣職業婦女的民族誌研究。慈濟大學人類學研究所碩士論文。
Farrer, Gracia Liu. 2004. The Chinese Social Dance Party in Tokyo: Identity and Status in an Immigrant Leisure Subculture. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 33, no. 6: 651-74.
Hunt, Scott A., and Robert D. Benford. 1994. Identity Talk in the Peace and Justice Movement. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 22, no. 4: 488-517.
Khleif, Bud B. 1979. Language as Identity: Toward an Ethnography of Welsh Nationalism. Ethnicity 6, no. 4: 346-57.
Moinian, Farzaneh. 2006. The Construction of Identity on the Internet: Oops! I've Left My Diary Open to the Whole World! Childhood 13, no. 1: 49-68.
Pink, Sarah. 2005. Dirty Laundry. Everyday Practice, Sensory Engagement and the Constitution of Identity. Social Anthropology 13, no. 3: 275-90.
第十四週:研究方法(四) --- 生命史、傳記

基本閱讀教材:
Shu, Wei-Der. 2005. Transforming National Identity in the Diaspora: An Identity Formation Approach to Biographies of Activists Affiliated with the Taiwan Independence Movement in the United States. Ph.D. diss., Syracuse University. (中文版,Chapters 4, 5, and 11)
McAdams, Dan P. 1987. A Life-story Model of Identity. In Perspectives in Personality: A Research Annual, edited by Robert Hogan, and Warren H. Jones, 15-50. Vol. 2. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.
建議閱讀教材:
劉安真,2001,「女同志」性認同形成歷程與污名處理之分析研究。國立彰化師範大學輔導與諮商系博士論文。
Bermanzohn, Sally Avery. 1998. The Greensboro Massacre: Political Biographies of Four Surviving Demonstrators. New Political Science 20, no. 1: 69-89.
Stewart, Abigail J., Carol1 Franz, and Lynne1 Layton. 1988. The Changing Self: Using Personal Documents to Study Lives. Journal of Personality 56, no. 1: 41-74.
Yousman, Bill. 2001. Who Owns Identity? Malcolm X, Representation, and the Struggle Over Meaning. Communication Quarterly 49, no. 1: 1-18.
第十五週:研究方法(五) --- 文本分析:文學文本

基本閱讀教材:
盧建榮,1999,分裂的國族認同 --- 1975-1997。台北:麥田出版。
單德興,2000,書寫亞裔美國文學史:趙健秀的個案研究,見單德興,銘刻與再現:華裔美國文學與文化論集,頁213-128。台北:麥田出版。
建議閱讀教材:
荊子馨,2006,成為「日本人」:殖民地台灣與認同政治,鄭力軒譯。台北:麥田出版。
施正鋒,1998,吳濁流的民族認同:以《亞細亞的孤兒》作初探,見施正鋒,族群與民族主義:集體認同的政治分析,頁71-108。台北:前衛。
周建江,2003,民族認同‧國家認同‧文化認同:民族文學研究中有關作家研究的若干理論問題。民族文學研究,no. 3
Neubauer, John. 1994. Problems of Identity in Modernist Fiction. In Identity and Development: An Interdisciplinary Approach, edited by Harke A. Bosma, Harold D. Grotevant, and David J. Delevita, 123-34. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Yousman, Bill. 2001. Who Owns Identity? Malcolm X, Representation, and the Struggle Over Meaning. Communication Quarterly 49, no. 1: 1-18.
第十六週:研究方法(六) --- 文本分析:非文學文本(論述分析、敘事方析)

基本閱讀教材:
蕭阿勤,2005,世代認同與歷史敘事:台灣1970年代「回歸現實」世代的形成。台灣社會學,no. 9:1-58。
Somers, Margaret R., and Gloria D. Gibson. 1994. Reclaiming the Epistemological "Other": Narrative and the Social Construction of Identity. In Social Theory and the Politics of Identity, edited by Craig Calhoun, 337-99. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers.
建議閱讀教材:
翁秀琪,2001,集體記憶與認同構塑:以美麗島事件為例。新聞學研究 68:117-49。
蕭阿勤,2003,認同、敘事、與行動:台灣1970年代黨外的歷史建構。台灣社會學,no. 5:195-250。
方孝謙,2000,一九二零年代殖民地台灣的民族認同政治。台灣社會研究季刊,no. 40:1-48。
王甫昌,2001,民族想像、族群意識與歷史:「認識台灣」教科書爭議風波的內容與脈絡分析。台灣史研究 8,no. 2:145-208。
Caruth, Cathy. 1996. Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Johnston, Hank. 1995. A Methodology for Frame Analysis: From Discourse to Cognitive Schemata. In Social Movements and Culture, edited by Hank Johnston, and Bert Klandermans, 217-46. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Gergen, Kenneth J., and Mary M. Gergen. 1997. Narratives of the Self. In Memory, Identity, Community: The Idea of Narrative in the Human Sciences, edited by Lewis P. Hinchman, and Sandra K. Hinchman, 161-84. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Lucius-Hoene, Gabriele. 2000. Constructing and Reconstructing Narrative Identity. Forum: Qualitative Social Research 1, no. 2. Available from World Wide Web: .
McAdam, Dan P. 1993. The Stories We Live By: Personal Myths and the Making of the Self. New York: The Guilford Press.
Wetherell, Margaret. 1987. How To Analyze Discourse. In Discourse and Social Psychology: Beyond Attitudes and Behaviour, Jonathan Potter, and Margaret Wetherell, 158-87. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Wuthnow, Robert. 1989. Communities of Discourse: Ideology and Social Structure in the Reofrmation, the Enlightenment, and European Socialism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
第十七週:研究方法(七) --- 圖像、音樂、夢境及其他非傳統性研究素材

基本閱讀教材:
周婉窈,2005,想像的民族風:論江文也文字作品中的台灣與中國。台大歷史學報,no. 35:127-80。
馮涵棣,2003,When Culture Meets Psyche: Understanding the Contextualized Self through the Life and Dreams of an Elderly Taiwanese Woman。台灣人類學刊 1,no. 2:149-75。
Tsang, Wai King, and Matilda Wong. 2004. Constructing a Shared 'Hong Kong Identity' in Comic Discourses. Discourse and Society 15, no. 6: 767-85.
建議閱讀教材:
葉郁菁,2001,從兒童畫中分析國小學童性別角色之認同。初等教育學報,no. 14:259-92。
顏娟英,2004,日治時期地方色彩與台灣意識問題:林玉山從「水牛」到「家園」系列作品。新史學 15,no. 2:115-43。
楊克隆,1999,三○年代台語流行歌曲所展現的被殖民經驗。台灣人文(師大),no. 3:263-94。
Elias, Jamal J. 2005. Truck Decoration and Religious Identity: Material Culture and Social Function in Pakistan. Material Religion 1, no. 1: 48-70.
Purnell, Kim L. 2002. Listening to Lady Day: An Exploration of the Creative (Re)Negotiation of Identity Revealed in the Life Narratives and Music Lyrics of Billie Holiday. Communication Quarterly 50, no. 3/4 : 444-66.
第十八週:學生報告
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