科號Course Number:09410SOC 536400 學分Credit:3 人數限制Size of Limit:
中文名稱Course Title:文化社會學專題:消費
英文名稱Course English Title:Seminar in Sociology of culture : Consumption
任課教師Instructor:李丁讚
上課時間Time:F6F7F8
上課教室Room:人社C306

課程大綱:
文化社會學專題:消費
清華大學社會所:李丁讚
二零零五年秋季

一、 課程目的

消費,是現代社會的顯著現象,也是現代人的重要特徵。現代性的歷史源起,也就是十五、六世紀文藝復興時,由於航海的新發現,義大利和西北歐各地,開始從世界各地輸進各樣新奇物品,如香料、貴金屬、絲綢、瓷器、茶、咖啡等。這時,消費已經不只是吃飽穿暖等生活必需品的滿足,而慢慢轉化成對「奢侈品」的喜好與追求,一種具現代意義的「風格」與「品味」逐漸浮現,現代意義下的消費文化於焉誕生。我們甚至可以說,消費社會是現代社會的內涵現象。現代性的基本特徵就是「風格」與「品味」。

因此,現代消費社會的形成與現代物質文明息息相關。愈來愈多的新奇物品出現在我們生活的四週,構成了現代人「微物理」的存在狀態,也建構了現代人的「身態」(habitus)與「靈魂」。換句話說,現代文化就是物質文化。從「物體」的角度切入,讓我們對現代社會的特質有更深入而細緻的掌握。因此,本課程方法論的重點之一就是「考古學」。我們要以考古挖掘的技術,深入日常生活的脈絡與紋理之中,釐清「物」的秩序和方向,進而呈現「現代人」存在的「物質」基礎。

除了「量」的大不同之外,現代「物」和傳統「物」一個更重要的差別在,現代物是「私有」物,是屬於特定個人所擁有,而不像傳統社會一樣,「物」是一種「共有」的狀態。因此,就像Hegel 和 Durkheim 所指出的,在現代社會裡,人對「私有財物」(private property)擁有「權利」。在這個基礎上,物與人於是產生一種很親密的關係,進而構成個人的「風格」和「品味」,甚至構成一個人個性和人格的基本特質。A person is what he/she eats, or what she/he dresses.這是現代人之所以永不停止地購物和消費的基本動因。因此,本課程將從「私有財物」的角度切入,探討「物」與「人」相互構成的關係。

但是,從馬克斯的觀點來看,「私有財貨」正是現代社會的問題所在。在這裡,私有物是人類存在之所以會產生異化的主要因素所在。馬克斯認為,人因擁有私有物件,以致於對其他各種關係,包括人與人、人與自然、人與其它物體的關係都因此而終止斷裂。人性因此而扭曲、窄化或異化。而且,因為市場的運作,尤其是跨文化消費,交換價值逐漸取代使用價值,商品本身變成崇拜的對象,也就是所謂的「商品拜物教」。換句話說,商品宰制人性,疏離人性,而不是創造個性。這與 Hegel 和 Durkheim 是截然不同的。

因此, 除了前面兩週介紹消費社會的誕生及其特質之外,本課程主要的探討議題是:「為什麼現代人這麼喜歡消費?」為了回答這個問題,我們將分別從 Hegel-Durkheim 和. Marx 兩個軸線探討人與物的關係,分析人與物互相構成的過程,進而釐清現代消費的倫理意涵或道德困境。其中,最核心的概念框架和軸線是:「現代性」和「物」。最重要的概念組有二:1、Hegel – Durkheim的傳統:物質文明、私密領域、和消費社會;2、Marx 的傳統:商品化、交換價值、戀物癖。最主要的方法是:考古學。最主要的倫理立場:摸索中。最終極的生命關懷:人與物應該有怎樣的關係,才能讓人自在、自由、自主、自明。

二、 課程要求

同學們必須在課前閱讀指定材料,上課參與討論。並且繳交8篇心得,四篇課前(一頁),四篇課後(二頁)。期末繳交學期報告一篇(6頁)。

三、 評分標準:

心得報告每篇5分,共40分。課堂參與20分,期末報告40分。

四、 課程大綱:

第一週:簡介(現代性的進程)

第二週:消費社會的誕生
Fine, B., and E. Leopold, 2001, ‘Consumerism and the Industial Revolution,’ in Consumption, edited by D. Miller, Volume II, Routledge.
Clunas, C., 2001, ‘Conclusion: superfluous things: material culture and social status in early modern China,’ in Consumption, edited by D. Miller, Volumn I, Routledge.
Mukeji, C., 2001, ‘ Pictorial prints and the growth of consumerism:class and cosmopolitanism in early modern culture,’ in Consumption, edited by D. Miller, VolumeI, Routledge.
Shamas, C., 2001, ‘Changes in English and Angol-American consumption from 1550 to 1800,’ in Consumption, edited by D. Miller, Vol. I, Routledge.

參考資料:
Weber, M., The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism.
張維安,1995,〈現代資本主義精神:韋伯與宋巴特觀點之比較分析〉,《文化與經濟》,台北;巨流。
Mckendrich, H., et al, 1983, The birth of a consumer society, London: Huchinson.
Campbell, C., 1987, The romantic ethic and the spirit of modern consumerism, Oxford: Blackwell.
Sombart, W., 1967, Luxury and Capitalism, University of Michigan Press.

第三週:私有財物:個性的形成或人性的異化?
Waldron, J., 1988, The right to private property, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 第七章, Hegel’s discussion of property, Pp. 343-89.
Marx, K.,1977, Mclellan (編),Karl Marx: selected writings, Oxford University Press. Pp. 77-96; 435-443
Belk, R., 2004, ‘Collecting in a consumer society: a critical analysis,’ in Material Culture, edited by Buchli, Vol. IIIi, Routledge. Pp. 1-26.

參考資料:
Csikszentmihalyi, M., and E. Rochberg-halton, 1981, The meaning of things: domestic symbols and the self. Cambridge University Press.
Savage, M., et al, 1992, Property, bureaucracy and culture: middle-class formation in contemporary Britain, London: Routledge.
Rudmin, F., (ed.), 1991, To have possessions: a handbook on ownership and property, special issue of Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6(6): 287-306.
Belk, R., 2001, Collecting in a consumer society, London: Routledge.
Strathern, M., 1999, Property, substance and effect: anthropological essays on persons and things, London: Athlone.
Hegel, 1990, Allen Wood (編),Hegel’s Ethical Thoughts, 第五章, ‘Persons, Property, Law,’ Pp. 94-107.
Durkheim, E., 1958, Professional Ethics and Civic Morals, Pp.133-70.

第四、五週:親密關係:文明、器物、私密領域
Elias, N., 1978, The history of manners, Pp. 51-190.
Chartier, R., 1989, A history of private life, Vol. III, ‘ Passion of the Renaissance,’ Pp. 161-265; 327-62, Harvard University Press.

參考資料:
Carrier, J., 2004, ‘The rituals of Christmas giving,’ in Material culture, edited by V. Buchli, Vol. III, part 1, Pp. 66-82.
Chevalier, S., 2004, ‘ From woolen carper to grass carpet: bridging house and garden in an English suburb,’ in Material culture, edited by V. Buchli, Vol. III, part 1, Pp.83-105.
Clarke, A., 2004, ‘Tupperware: suburbia, sociality and mass consumption,’ in Material culture, edited by V. Buchli, Vol. III, part 1, Pp.106-31.
Schivelbusch, W., 1993, Taste of paradise: a social history of spices, stimulants, and intoxicants. Vintage Books. (中文翻譯:《味覺樂園:看香料、咖啡、煙草、酒如何創造私密天堂》)

第六、七週:風格、品味、階級、認同──「身態」的結構
Simmel, G., 1978, The philosophy of money, chapter 6, ‘The style of life,’ London: Routledge.
Bourdieu, P., 1990, The logic of practice, Pp. 52-79.
Bourdieu, P., 1984, Distinction: a social critique of the judgement of taste, Pp. 260-317.

參考資料:
Foucault, M., The order of things.
Savage, M., et al, 1992, Property, bureaucracy and culture: middle-class formation in contemporary Britain, London: Routledge.
Warde, A., 1994, ‘Consumption, identity-formation and uncertainty,’ Sociology 28(4):877-98.
Hebdige, D., 1997, 《次文化:生活方式的意義》
Ingold, T., 1988, ‘Building, Dwelling, Living: how animals and people make themselves at home in the world,’ in M. Stathern (ed.) Shifting contexts: transformations in anthropological knowledge, London: Routledge, Pp. 57-80.
Savage, M. et al, 2001, ‘Culture, consumption and lifestyle,’ in Consumption, edited by D. Miller, Vol. III, London: Routledge. Pp. 523-555.

第八週:風格的衍異與轉化──從結構到後結構
Baudrillard, 1996, The system of objects, Pp. 85-106; 135-55.
Gell, A., 1998, Art and agency, conclusion, Pp.221-58

參考資料
De Certau, The practice of everyday life.
Miller, D., 1987, Material culture and mass consumption, Oxford: Blackwell.
Belk, R., 2001, ‘Possessions and the extended self,’ in Consumption, edited by D. Miller, Vol. I, Routledge. Pp. 180-238.
Campell, C., 2001, ‘The desire for the new: its nature and social allocation as presented in theories of fashion and modern consumerism,’ in Consumption, edited by D. Miller, Vol. I, Routledge, Pp.246-61.

第九、十週:愛、犧牲、死亡、浪費:消費的深層資訊
Bataille, G., 1997, The Bataille Reader, edited by Booting and Wilson, Oxford: Blackwell. Pp. 165-274, part III and part VI.
Miller, D., 1998, A theory of shopping, Cornell University Press.

參考資料:
Mauss, M., 1990, The gift, Norton.
Hubert, H., and Mauss, M., 1964, Sacrifice, Chicago: university of Chicago Press.
Douglas, M., and B. Isherwood, 1979, The world of goods: towards an anthropology of consumption, London: Routledge.

第十一、十二週:邊界的誘惑:什麼是「戀物癖」?
Pietz, W., 1993, ‘Fetishism and materialism: the limits of theory in Marx,’ in Fetishism as cultural discourse, edited by Apter and Pietz, Cornell University Press. Pp. 119-51.
Amariglio, J., and A. Callari, 1993, ‘Marxian value theory and the problem of the subject: the role of commodity fetishism,’ in Fetishism as cultural discourse, edited by Apter and Pietz, Cornell University Press. Pp. 152-85.
Ellen, R., 1988, ‘Fetishism’, MAN, 23(June):213-35.

Spyer, P., (ed.) 1998, Border fetishism: material objects in unstable spaces, Routledge, 第四、五、七章。
Weiner, A., 2001, ‘Inalienable wealth,’ in Material culture, edited by V. Buchli, Vol.II, Pp.496-521.

參考資料
Belk, R., 1991, The ineluctable mysteries of possessions, in To have possessions: a handbook on ownership and possessions, edited by W. Rudmin, special issue of Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6(6):17-55.
Olmsted, Al D., 1991, ‘Collecting: leisure, investment of obsession,’ in To Have Possessions.
Spyer, P., (ed.) 1998, Border fetishism: material objects in unstable spaces, Routledge.

第十三週:偶像的創造:粉絲、流行時尚、大眾傳播
Crook, S., 1994, Adorno and authoritarian irrationalism, In Adorno: the stars down to earth, Routledge, Pp. 1-33.
曹青雲,2005,ipod 音樂風: fans+fashion+fun = ipod music, 碁峰資訊社。

參考資料:
Horkheimer, M., The dialectics of enlightment. Especially The culture industry.
Horkheimer, M., Metaphysics and materialism.
Jancovich, M., 2003, Quality popular television : cult TV, the industry and fans, London: Britis film Institute,
Jenkins, H., 1992, Textual poachers: television fans and participatory culture, Toutledge.

第十四週:從「物」到「商品」:價值的生產
Appadurai, A., 1986, ‘Introduction: commodities and the politics of value,’
In Appadurai (ed.) The social life of things, Pp. 3-63.
Kopytoff, I., 1986, ‘ The cultural biography of things: commoditization as process,’ In Appadurai (ed.) The social life of things, Cambridge University Press. Pp. 64-91.

參考資料:
Appadurai, A., (ed.), 1986, The social life of things, (其餘章節)
Baudrillard, J., 2001, ‘Beyond the use value,’ in Consumption, edited by D. Miller, Vol. I, Routledge. Pp. 169-79.
Kemper, S., 2002, Buying and believing: Sri Lankan advertising and consumers in a transnational world.

第十五週:科技的蠱惑──「物」的魔咒
Gell, A., 1992, The technology of enchantment and the enchantment of technology, in Coote and Shelton (eds.) Anthropology, art and aesthetics, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Pp. 40-67.
Ingold, T., 2000, ‘Making culture and weaving the world,’ in Matter, Materiality and Modern Culture, ed. By P. Graves-Brown, Routledge, Pp. 50-71.
Latour, B., 1999, ‘A collective of humans and nonhumans: following Daedalus’s labyrinth,’ in Pandora’s Hope: essays on the reality of science studies. Harvard University Press, Pp. 174-215.
:
參考資料
Pinney C. and N. Thomas, 2001, Beyond aesthetics: art and the technology of enchantment, Berg.
Gell, A., 1996, ‘Vogel’s net: traps as artworks and artworks as traps,’ Journal of Material Culture I(1):15-38.
Latour, B., 1993, We have never been modern, London: Prentice Hall.
Latour, B., 2000, ‘The Berlin key or how to do works with things,’ in Matter, Materiality and Modern Culture, ed. By P. Graves-Brown, Routledge, Pp.10-21.
Knappett, C., 2002, ‘Photographs, skeuomorphs and marionettes: some thoughts on mind, agency and object,’ Journal of Material Culture, 7(1):97-117.

第十六週:跨文化消費
Mintz, S., 1996, Tasting food, tasting freedom, Beacon Press. (中文譯本:吃/漫遊飲食行為、文化與歷史的金三角地帶)

參考資料:
Howes, D., 1996, Cross-cultural consumption: global markets, local realities, London:Routledge.
Farquar, J., 2002, Appetites: food and sex in post-socialist China, Duke University Press.
Clammer, J., 1997, Contemporary urban Japan: a sociology of consumption.
Minz, S., 1985, Sweetness and power: the place of sugar in modern history. Penguin Books,




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