科號Course Number:09220ANTH666000 學分Credit:3 人數限制Size of Limit:
中文名稱Course Title:宗教語言
英文名稱Course English Title:Religious Language

請至http://trex.hss.nthu.edu.tw/~anth/pro_courses.htm 下載。

Syllabus (draft)
Institute of Anthropology
National Tsing Hua University
Second Semester, 2004
Class times and location. Fridays 9-12 am, Room C304.
Course instructor. James Wilkerson.
Objectives and Design. This course has both theoretical and ethnographic components, but its overall objective and design is as a practical introduction for students intending to go into the field and conduct research on some aspect of religion or performance.
The specific objectives of this course are to assist MA and PhD students of Anthropology in:
• Acquiring or enhancing the skills necessary for the scholarly presentation of textual material, including transcription, word-glossing, and paraphrase.
• Solving a range of problems they are likely to encounter in dealing with oral and written texts associated with ritual performance.
• Gaining practice in scholarly discussion of issues raised in the presentation of texts, including phonology and dialect, poetics, framing devices, parallelism, deixis, anaphora, and other contextualising devices.
• Familiarising themselves with the resources needed for elucidation of specifically religious concepts and ‘technical terms’, including place-names, names of gods and other spiritual beings, honorific titles, numbers, ethical concepts, and so on.
• Exploring the indexical and iconic functions of religious language.
The course’s design covers a series of five movements:
• In the first two weeks, we will obtain an overview of current theoretical issues in the area of religious language and performance, through the medium of two recent review articles.
• On this basis, we will move on to look more closely at a series of key concepts and key debates in recent writing on the subject (4 weeks).
• The third part of the course (4 weeks) will move to a focus on the practice of dealing with texts. Students are introduced to resources available for solving a variety of practical problems that arise when elucidating religious texts. Sample cases compliment in-depth discussions. At the same time, we will devote one hour each week to staff and student presentations of specific ritual performances or ethnographic accounts of performances (such as the volumes in the Min-su ch’ü-i series). This will provide an opportunity of linking specific examples with the discussion in the previous few weeks on key theoretical issues.
• The fourth part of the course, also devoted to practical methods, moves from the ‘cooked’ to the ‘raw.’ That is, students will work intensively with selected segments of unedited fieldwork material, including photocopies of ritual manuscripts, audio recordings of performances, and video recordings. The idea is to provide students with practice in elucidation and presentation.
• Finally, we will return to an overview of the field. In this process, we will revisit our initial readings in light of our experience in practical work with texts, and consider some of the complex ways in which theory and the particularity of texts are interrelated.
• Each student will write a term paper on a subject of his or her choice, though with prior consultation with course instructors (topic and outline due 1 May, paper due 1 June) (thirty-five percent of total grade). Term papers should be about 8,000 characters in length and adhering strictly to institute and discipline style standards.
• Each student will also write three project reports (due the day before each project’s presentation) (thirty percent of total grade). One project report will be prepared for each of the course’s three main topics of “Key Issues,” “Nuts and Bolts,” and “Raw materials” (see below). Specific project topics and due dates will be arranged in class in consultation with other students and the course instructors. Each project report will be about 1,500 characters in length and adhere strictly to institute and discipline style standards. The total score for the project reports will constitute thirty percent of total grade.
• Each student will present his or her term paper in an hour-long presentation in the last week of May. The assessment for the presentation will be included in the student’s class participation assessment (see below)
• Each student will also present each of his or her project reports, with each report lasting about fifteen to twenty minutes (see above for scheduling). Like the presentation of the term papers, assessment for the project report presentations will be included in the student’s class participation assessment (see below).
• In addition to presentations of the term papers and project reports, each student’s class participation should also amply demonstrate their coverage of the essential readings as well as their ability to participate in scholarly discussions. Though absences are permitted, frequent absences and late attendance will be factors in class participation assessment. Class participation constitutes thirty-five percent of the total grade.
Other Essentials
• Unless prior permission is given, written assignments that are submitted late will not be accepted.
• Unless prior permission is given, absences for class presentation assignments will not be excused.
Readings are divided into essential and recommended readings. All students are expected to follow the reading schedule. However, essential readings here should be taken only as an indication of what should be read and as a common basis of class discussion, and individual students are encouraged to undertake additional readings, chosen after consultation with teaching staff. Recommendations for further reading will take into account foreign language reading ability of individual students.

Schedule of Classes and Topics
1 20 Feb Introduction and Overview
2 27 Feb More Overview
3 5 March Linguistic Form and Pragmatics
4 12 March Intentionality and Participant Roles
5 19 March Extractability of Texts
6 26 March Orality and Literality
7 2 April Vacation
8 9 April Dialect, Phonology, Transcription
9 16 April Meaning and Metaphor
10 23 April Poetics and Parallelism
11 30 April Taoist and Buddhist Language et al
12 7 May David Holm, “Dongyong and Doekvingx in Donglan County.”
13 14 May James Wilkerson, “Celebrating Longevity in Jingxi County.”
14 21 May Paul Katz (?).
15 28 May Oral Presentations of Student Term Papers
16 4 June Oral Presentations of Student Term Papers
17 11 June Return to issues raised in first two class meetings

Essential Readings
Week 1 Introduction and Overview
Keane, Webb
1997 Religious Language. Annual Review of Anthropology 26:47-71.
Bauman, Richard and Charles L. Briggs
1990 Poetics and Performance as Critical Perspectives on Language and Social Life. Annual Review of Anthropology 19:59-88.
Week 2 More Overview
Goffman, Erving
1974 Frame Analysis. New York: Harper and Row. (Read only Chapter Two “Primary Frameworks” and Chapter Five “The Theatrical Frame.” This book is available in Chinese translation.)
Week 3 Key Issues I: Linguistic Form and Pragmatics
Du Bois, J.W.
1986 Self-Evidence and Ritual Speech. In Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology. W. Chafe and J Nichols, eds. Pp 313-36. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Silverstein, Michael
1976 Shifters, Linguistic Categories, and Cultural Description. In Meaning in Anthropology. K.H. Basso and H. Selby, eds. Pp 11-56. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
Week 4 Key Issues II: Intentionality and Participant Roles
Wagner, Roy
1977 Speaking for Others: Power and Identity as Factors in Daribi Mediumistic Hysteria. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 33 (56-57): 145-152.
Goffman, Erving
1981 Footing. In Forms of Talk. Pp 124-59. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Week 5 Key Issues III: Extractability of Text
Schieffelin, E.L.
1985 Performance and the Cultural Construction of Reality. American Ethnologist 12(4):707-24.
Wheelock, W. T.
1982 The Problem of Ritual Language: from Information to Situation. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 50(1):49-71.
Week 6 Key Issues IV: Orality and Literality
Schipper, Kristofer
1974 The Written Memorial in Taoist Ceremonies. In Religion and Ritual in Chinese Society. Arthur P. Wolf, ed. Pp 309-24. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Chafe, Wallace and Deborah Tannen
1987 The Relation Between Written and Spoken Language. Annual Review of Anthropology 16:383-407.
Week 7 Vacation
Week 8 Nuts and Bolts I: Dialect, Phonology, Transcription
(Article in Minsu quyi on xiao fashi.)
Week 9 Nuts and Bolts II: Meaning and Metaphor
Fernandez, James W.
1986 Persuasions and Performances: The Play of Tropes in Culture. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Powers, William K.
1986 Sacred Language: the Nature of Supernatural Discourse in Lakota. Norman, OK: University of Okalahoma Press. (Read only Chapter One “Incomprehensible Terms.”)
Week 10 Nuts and Bolts III: Poetics and Parallelism
Jakobson, Roman
1960 Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics. In Style in Language. T.A. Sebeok, ed. Pp. 350-77. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Fox, J. J.
1977 Roman Jakobson and the Comparative Study of Parallelism. In Roman Jakobson: Echoes of His Scholarship. J.D. Armstrong and C.H. van Schooneveld, eds. Pp 59-90. Lisse: de Ridder.
Week 11 Raw Materials: Taoist and Buddhist Language et al.
Lien, Chinfa
1995 Language Adaptation in Taoist Liturgical Texts. In Ritual and Scripture in Chinese Popular Relgion: Five Studies. David Johnson, ed. Pp 219-246. Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies.
Week 12 Raw Material: Zhuang
Zhang Shengzhen, ed.
1991 Chang Tongling. In Buluoto jingshi yizhu. Nanning, Guangxi: Guangxi renmin chuban she.
Photocopies of raw materials.
Week 12 Raw Material: More Zhuang
Holm, David
1996 A Cosmogonic Text From Donglan (Guangxi Province). Paper presented at the International Conference on Tai Studies. Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University. Bankok, Thailand. 29-31 July 1998.
1997 The Exemplar of Filial Piety and the Caterpillar in the Jar: Dong Yong in Guangxi and Guizhou Ritual Performance. Paper presented at the Conference on Regional Cultures and Performing Arts. Putian, Fujian. October, 1999.
Week 13 Raw Material: Yet More Zhuang
Wilkerson, James
n.d. Celebrating Longevity in Jingxi County.
Week 14: Han Taoism
TBA. I’ll be asking Paul Katz to drop in. We’ll read one of his works.
Week 15 Post Mortems: Oral Presentations of Student Term Papers
No essential readings. Read from recommended readings for preparation of term papers
Week 16 Post Mortems: Return to Fundamental Issues and Course Summation
No essential readings. Re-read essential and recommended readings for preparation of term papers and for overview and summation of course coverage

Recommended Readings and Project Report Resources (draft)
Week 1 Introduction and Overview
Wagner, Roy
1984 Ritual as Communication: Order, Meaning, and Secrecy in Melanesian Initiation Rites. Annual Review of Anthropology 13:143-55.
Week 2 Overview
Leach, Edmund
1972 Anthropological Aspects of Language: Animal Categories and Verbal Abuse. In Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach. William A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt,eds. pp 206-219. New York: Harper and Row.
Week 3 Key Issues: Linguistic Form and Pragmatics
Kuipers, J. C.
1990 Power in Performance: The Creation of Textual Authority in Weyewa Ritual Speech. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
McCreery, John L.
1995 Negotiating with Demons: the Uses of Magical Language. American Ethnologist 22(1):144-64.
Powers, William
1986 Incomprehensible Terms. Chapter One in Sacred Language. Pp 11-41. Norman, OK: University of Okolahoma Press.
Jardine, Murray
1996 Sign, Sound, and Epistemology: The Experiential Sources of Ethnical Concepts. Journal of the American Academy of Religion LXIV(1):1-25.
Week 4 Key Issues: Intentionality and Participant Roles
Searle, J.
1969 Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Derrida, Jacques
1982 Signature Event Context. In Margins of Philosophy. A. Bass, tr. Pp.307-30. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Boddy, J.
1994 Spirit Posession Revisited: Beyond Instrumentality. Annual Review of Anthropology 23:407-34.
Week 5 Key Issues: Extractability of Texts
Metcalf, Peter
1989 Where Are You/Spirits? Style and Theme in Berawan Prayer. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press.
Silverstein, Michael and Greg Urban, eds.
1996 Natural Histories of Discourse. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Briggs, Charles and Richard Bauman
1999 “The Foundation of All Future Researches”: Franz Boas, George Hunt, Native American Texts, and the Construction of Modernity. American Quarterly 51(3):47.
Week 6 Key Issues: Orality and Literality
Nelson, K.
1985 The Art of Reciting the Qur’an. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Hanks, William F.
1989 Text and Textuality. Annual Review of Anthropology 18:95-127.
Goody, Jack.
1987 The Interface Between the Written and the Oral. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lord, A.B.
1960 The Singer of Tales. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Week 7 Nuts and Bolts: Dialect, Phonology, Transcription
Payne, Thomas E.
1997 Describing Morphosyntax: A Guide for Field Linguists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pullum, Geoffrey K. and William A. Laduslaw
1996 Phonetic Symbol Guide. Second Edition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Pulleyblank, Edwin G.
1991 Lexicon of Reconstructed Pronunciation in Early Middle Chinese, Late Middle Chinese, and Early Mandarin. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.
Ladefoged, Peter
1993 A Course in Phonetics. Third Edition. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Week 8 Nuts and Bolts: Meaning and Metaphor
Calame-Griaule, G.
1986 Words and the Dogon World. Philadelphia, PA: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.
Wagner, Roy
1986 Symbols that Stand for Themselves. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Weiner, J.F.
1991 The Empty Place: Poetry, Space and Being Among the Foi of Papua New Guinea. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Bloch, Maurice
1975 Introduction. In Political Language and Oratory in Traditional Society. Pp 1-28. New York: Academic Press.
Irvine, J.T.
1979 Formality and Informality in Communicative Events. American Anthropologist 5:651-74.
Week 9 (22 Nov) Nuts and Bolts: Poetics, Parallelism, and Performance
? Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lau, Joseph
? The Art of Chinese Poetry. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Jakobson, Roman
1960 Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics. In Style in Language. T.A. Sebeok, ed. Pp 350-77. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hymes, Dell
1981 “In Vain I Tried to Tell You”: Essays in Native American Ethnopoetics. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Feld, Steven
1982 Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetic s, and Song in Kaluli expression.
Lomax, Alan
1969 Folk Song Style and Culture. New York: HRAF Press.
Week 10 Nuts and Bolts: Taoist and Buddhist Language et al.
Soothill and Hodous
1976 Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Week 11 Raw Material
(readings to be advised)
Week 12 Raw Material
(readings to be advised)
Week 13 Raw Material
(readings to be advised)
Week 14 Return to Overview
(readings to be advised)
Week 15 Return to Overview and Summation
(last day of class)


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